Total: 33, . Total: 21,  Wellington's army: 15, killed, wounded, or missing . A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by two armies of the Seventh Coalition. One of these was a British-led force with units from the United Kingdomthe Netherlands, HanoverBrunswickand Nassauunder the command of the Duke of Wellington often referred to as the Anglo-allied army or Wellington's army.
Upon Napoleon's return to power in March beginning the Hundred Daysmany states that had previously opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and hurriedly mobilised their armies. Napoleon planned to attack them separatelybefore they could link up and invade France with other members of the coalition. On 16 June, Napoleon successfully attacked the bulk of the Prussian army at the Battle of Ligny with his main force, while a small portion of the French army contested the Battle of Quatre Bras to prevent the Anglo-allied army from reinforcing the Prussians.
The Anglo-allied army held their ground at Quatre Bras, and on the 17th, the Prussians withdrew from Ligny in good order, while Wellington then elite singles near waterloo in parallel with the Prussians northward to Waterloo on 17 June. Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Elite singles near waterloo, which resulted in the separate Battle of Wavre with the Prussian rear-guard elite singles near waterloo 18—19 June, and prevented that French force from participating at Waterloo.
Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean  escarpment across the Brussels road, near the village of Waterloo. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon of 18 June and almost lost the battle, but was eventually aided by the progressively arriving 50, Prussians who attacked the French flank and inflicted heavy casualties.
In the evening, Napoleon assaulted the Anglo-allied line with his last reserves, the senior elite singles near waterloo battalions of the Imperial Guard. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, the Anglo-allied army repulsed the Imperial Guard, and the French army was routed. Waterloo was the decisive engagement of the Waterloo campaign and Napoleon's last.
It was also the second bloodiest single day battle of the Napoleonic Wars, after Borodino. According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your life". The defeat at Waterloo marked the end of Napoleon's Hundred Days return from exile.
It precipitated Napoleon's second and definitive abdication as Emperor of the Frenchand ended the First French Empire. It set a historical milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peaceoften referred to as the Pax Britannica. In popular culture, the phrase "meeting one's Waterloo" has become an expression for someone suffering a final defeat, as in the ABBA song " Waterloo ".
The battlefield is located in the Belgian municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud elite singles near waterloo Lasne about 15 kilometres 9. The site of the battlefield today is dominated by the monument of the Lion's Mounda large artificial hill constructed from earth taken from elite singles near waterloo battlefield itself, but the topography of the battlefield near the mound has not been preserved.
On 13 Marchsix days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw. Had Napoleon succeeded in destroying the existing coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might have elite singles near waterloo able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. Crucially, this would have bought him time to recruit and train more men before turning his armies against the Austrians and Russians.
An additional consideration for Napoleon was that a French victory might cause French-speaking sympathisers in Belgium to launch a friendly revolution. Also, coalition troops in Belgium were largely second-line, as many units were of dubious quality and loyalty. The initial dispositions of Wellington, the British commander, were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels.
In order to delay Wellington's elite singles near waterloo, Napoleon spread false intelligence which suggested that Wellington's supply chain from the channel ports would be elite singles near waterloo. By June, Napoleon had raised a total army strength of aboutmen.
The force at his elite singles near waterloo at Waterloo was less than one third that size, but the rank and file were mostly loyal and experienced soldiers. He hoped this would prevent them from combining, and he would be able to destroy first the Elite singles near waterloo army, then Wellington's.
Only very late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was elite singles near waterloo main French thrust. In the early hours of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in Brussels, he received a dispatch from the Prince of Orange and was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance.
He hastily ordered his army to concentrate on Quatre Braswhere the Prince of Orange, with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimarwas holding a tenuous position against the soldiers of Ney's left wing. Ney's orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras, so that he could later elite singles near waterloo east and reinforce Napoleon if necessary. Ney found the crossroads of Quatre Bras lightly held by the Prince of Orange, who repelled Ney's initial attacks but was gradually driven back by overwhelming numbers of French troops.
First reinforcements, and then Wellington arrived. He took command and drove Ney back, securing the crossroads by early evening, too elite singles near waterloo to send help to the Prussians, who had already been defeated. The Prussian centre gave way under heavy French assaults, but the flanks held their ground. The Prussian retreat from Ligny went uninterrupted and seemingly unnoticed by the French.
The bulk of their rearguard units held their positions until about midnight, and some elements did not move out until the following morning, ignored by the French. Crucially, the Prussians did not retreat to the east, along their own lines of communication. Instead, they, elite singles near waterloo, fell back northwards—parallel to Wellington's line of march, still within supporting distance and in communication with him throughout.
The next day he withdrew northwards, to a defensive position that he had reconnoitred the previous year—the low ridge of Mont-Saint-Jean, south of the village of Waterloo and the Sonian Forest. Napoleon, with the elite singles near waterloo, made a late start on 17 June and joined Ney elite singles near waterloo Quatre Bras at to attack Wellington's army but found the position empty.
The French pursued Wellington's retreating army to Waterloo; however, due to bad weather, mud and the head start that Napoleon's tardy advance had allowed Wellington, there was no substantial engagement, apart from a cavalry action at Genappe.
Before leaving Ligny, Napoleon had ordered Grouchy, who commanded the right wing, to follow up the retreating Prussians with 33, men. A late start, uncertainty about the direction the Prussians had taken, and the vagueness of the orders given to him, meant that Grouchy was too late to prevent the Prussian army reaching Wavre, from where it could march to support Wellington.
More importantly, the heavily outnumbered Prussian rear-guard was able to use the River Dyle to enable a savage and prolonged action to delay Grouchy.
As 17 June drew to a close, Wellington's army had arrived elite singles near waterloo its position at Waterloo, with the main body of Napoleon's army following. He decided to hold his ground and give battle.
The French army of around 69, consisted of 48, infantry, 14, cavalry, and 7, artillery with guns. His troops were mainly veterans with considerable experience and a fierce devotion to their Emperor. However, as the army took shape, French officers were allocated to units as they presented themselves for duty, so that many units were commanded by officers the soldiers did not know, and often did not trust.
Crucially, some of these officers had little experience elite singles near waterloo working together as a unified force, so that support for other units was often not given. The French army was forced to march through rain and black coal-dust mud to reach Waterloo, and then to contend with mud and rain as it slept in the open.
Wellington later said that he had "an infamous army, very weak and ill-equipped, and a very inexperienced Staff ". All of the British Army troops were regular soldiers and the majority of them had served in the Peninsula. Of the 23 British regiments in action, only 4 the 14th, 33rd, 69th, and 73rd Foot had not served in the Peninsula, and a similar level of experience was to be found in the British cavalry and artillery.
In addition, there were 17, Dutch and Belgian troops, 11, from Hanover6, from Brunswickand 3, from Nassau. Many of the troops in the Coalition armies were inexperienced.
With the exception of the British and some from Hanover and Brunswick who had fought with the British army in Spain, many of the professional soldiers in the Coalition armies had spent elite singles near waterloo of their time in the French army or in armies allied to the Napoleonic regime. The historian Alessandro Barbero states that in this heterogeneous army the difference between British and foreign troops did not prove significant under fire.
Wellington was also acutely short of heavy cavalry, having only seven British and three Dutch regiments. The Duke of York imposed many of his staff officers on Wellington, including his second-in-command the Earl of Uxbridge. Uxbridge commanded the cavalry and had carte blanche from Wellington to commit these forces at his discretion. Wellington stationed a further 17, troops at Halle8 miles 13 km away to the west.
They were mostly composed of Dutch troops under the Prince of Orange's younger brother Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. They were placed as a guard against any possible wide flanking movement by the French forces, and also to act as a rearguard if Wellington was forced to retreat towards Antwerp and the coast.
The Prussian elite singles near waterloo was in the throes of reorganisation. Inthe former Reserve regiments, Legions, and Freikorps volunteer formations from the wars of — were in the process of being absorbed into the line, along with many Landwehr militia regiments.
The Landwehr were mostly untrained and unequipped when they arrived in Belgium. The Prussian cavalry were in a similar state. Offsetting these handicaps, the Prussian Army had excellent and professional leadership in its General Staff organisation.
These officers came from four schools developed for elite singles near waterloo purpose and thus worked to a common standard of training. This system was in marked contrast to the conflicting, vague orders issued by the French army. This staff system ensured that before Ligny, three-quarters of the Prussian army concentrated for battle with 24 hours' notice. After Ligny, the Prussian army, although defeated, was able to realign its supply train, reorganise itself, and intervene decisively on the Waterloo battlefield within 48 hours.
The Waterloo position chosen by Wellington was a strong one. It consisted of a long ridge running east—west, perpendicular to, and bisected by, the main road to Brussels.
Along the crest of the ridge ran the Ohain road, a deep sunken lane. Near the crossroads with the Brussels road was a large elm tree that was roughly in the centre of Wellington's position and served as his command post for much of the day. Wellington deployed his infantry in a line just behind the crest of the ridge following the Ohain road. Using the reverse slopeas he had many times previously, Wellington concealed his strength from the French, with the exception of his skirmishers and artillery.
This allowed Wellington to draw up his forces in depth, which he did in the centre and on the right, all the way towards the village of Braine-l'Alleudin the expectation that the Prussians would reinforce his left during the day. In front of the ridge, there were three positions that could be fortified. This was a large and well-built country house, initially hidden in trees.
The house faced north along a sunken, covered lane usually described by the British as "the hollow-way" along which it could be supplied. On the extreme left was the hamlet of Papelotte. Both Hougoumont and Papelotte were fortified and garrisoned, and thus anchored Wellington's flanks securely.
Papelotte also commanded the road to Wavre that the Prussians would use to send reinforcements to Wellington's position. On the western side of the main road, and in front of the rest of Wellington's line, was the farmhouse and orchard of La Haye Saintewhich was garrisoned with light infantry of the King's German Legion.
Wellington's forces positioning presented a formidable challenge to any attacking force. Any attempt to turn Wellington's right would entail taking the entrenched Hougoumont position. Any attack on his right elite singles near waterloo would mean the attackers would have to march between enfilading fire from Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. On the left, any attack would also be enfiladed by fire from La Haye Sainte and its adjoining sandpit, and any attempt at turning the left flank would entail fighting through the lanes and hedgerows surrounding Papelotte and elite singles near waterloo other garrisoned buildings on that flank, elite singles near waterloo some very wet ground in the Smohain defile.
The French army formed on the slopes of another ridge to the south. Napoleon could not see Wellington's positions, so he drew his forces up symmetrically about the Brussels road.
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