According to tradition, he was a soldier in the Roman army. He was of Cappadocian Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletianbut was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
He became one of the most venerated saints and megalomartyrs in Christianity, matchmaking in saint-georges he has been especially venerated as a military saint since the Crusades. He is respected by Christians, Druzeas well as some Muslims as a martyr of monotheistic faith. In hagiographyas one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalized in the legend of Saint George and the Dragon.
His feast day, Saint George's Dayis traditionally celebrated on 23 April. Historically, the countries of England, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Ukraine, Malta, Ethiopia, as well as Catalonia and Aragon in Spain, and Moscow in Russia, have claimed George as their patron saint, as have several other regions, cities, universities, professions, and organizations. George's remains. Very little is known about George's life, but it is thought he was matchmaking in saint-georges Roman military officer of Greek descent who was martyred in one of the pre-Constantinian persecutions.
The saint's veneration dates to the 5th century with some certainty, and possibly even to the 4th. The addition of the dragon legend dates to the 11th century. The earliest text which preserves fragments of George's narrative is in a Greek hagiography which is identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists matchmaking in saint-georges be a palimpsest of the 5th century. The most complete version, based upon the fifth-century Greek text but in a later form, survives in a translation into Syriac from about From text fragments preserved in the British Library matchmaking in saint-georges, a translation into English was published in After his father died, his mother, who was originally from Lyddain Syria Palaestinareturned with George to her matchmaking in saint-georges. In later versions of the Greek legend, this name is rationalised to Diocletianand George's martyrdom is placed in the Diocletian persecution of AD The setting in Nicomedia is also secondary, and inconsistent with the earliest cults of the saint being located in Diospolis.
George was executed by decapitation on 23 April A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra of Rome to become a Christian as well, so she joined George in martyrdom. His body was matchmaking in saint-georges in Lyddawhere Christians soon came to honour him as a martyr. His martyrdom was greatly extended to more than twenty separate tortures over the course of seven years. Over the course of his martyrdom, 40, pagans were converted to Christianity, including the Empress Alexandra.
When George finally died, the wicked Dacian was carried away in a whirlwind of fire. In later Latin versions, the persecutor is the Roman emperor Deciusor a Roman judge named Dacian serving matchmaking in saint-georges Diocletian.
There is little information on the early life of George. Herbert Thurston in The Catholic Encyclopedia states that, based upon an ancient cultusnarratives of the early pilgrims, and the early dedications of churches to George, going back to the fourth century, "there seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St.
George", although no faith can be placed in either the details of his history or his alleged exploits. The Diocletianic Persecution ofassociated with military saints matchmaking in saint-georges the persecution was aimed at Christians among the professional soldiers of the Roman armyis of undisputed historicity.
According to Donald Attwater. No historical particulars of his life have survived, The widespread veneration for St George as a soldier saint from early times had its centre in Palestine at Diospolis, now Lydda.
St George was apparently martyred there, at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century; that is all that can be reasonably surmised about him.
Edward Gibbon   argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Matchmaking in saint-georges  a notorious 4th-century Arian bishop who was Athanasius of Alexandria 's most bitter rival, and that it was he who in time became George of England. This identification is seen as highly improbable. Bishop George was slain by Matchmaking in saint-georges Greeks for exacting onerous taxes, especially inheritance taxes.
Burywho edited the edition of Gibbon's The Decline and Fallwrote "this matchmaking in saint-georges of Gibbon's has nothing to be said for it". He adds that "the connection of St.
George with a dragon-slaying legend does not relegate him to the region of the myth". The earliest known record of the legend of Saint George and the Dragon occurs in the 11th-century, in a Georgian source. The tradition tells that a fierce dragon was causing panic at the city of Silene, Libyaat the time George arrived there. In order to prevent the dragon from devastating people from the city, they gave two sheep each day to the dragon, but when the sheep were not enough they were forced to sacrifice humans, elected by the city's own people, instead of the two sheep.
Eventually, the king's daughter was chosen to be sacrificed, and no one was willing to take her place. George saved the girl by slaying the dragon with a lance. The king was so grateful that he offered him treasures as a reward for saving his daughter's life, but George refused it and instead he gave these to the poor. The people of the city were so amazed at what they had witnessed that they became Christians and were all baptized.
The Golden Legend offered a narration of George's encounter with a dragon. This account was very influential and it remains the most familiar version in English owing to William Caxton 's 15th-century translation.
In the medieval romances, the lance with which George slew the dragon was called Ascalon, after the Levantine city of Ashkelontoday in Israel.
The Islamic sources state that he lived among a group of believers who were in direct contact with the last apostles of Jesus. He is described as a rich merchant who opposed erection of Apollo matchmaking in saint-georges statue by Mosul 's king Dadan. After confronting the king, George was tortured many times to no effect, was imprisoned and was aided by the angels. Eventually, he exposed that the idols were possessed by Satan, but was martyred when the city was destroyed by God in a rain of fire.
Muslim scholars had tried to find a historical connection of the saint due to his popularity. The legend is more developed in the Persian version matchmaking in saint-georges al-Tabari wherein he matchmaking in saint-georges the dead, makes matchmaking in saint-georges sprout and pillars bear flowers.
After one of his deaths, the world is covered by darkness which is lifted only when he is resurrected. He is able to convert the queen but she is put to death.
He then prays to God to allow him to die, which is granted. He was killed many times by the king of Mosul, and resurrected each time. When the king tried to starve him, he touched a piece of dry wood brought by a woman and turned it green, with varieties of fruits and vegetables growing from it. After his fourth death, the city was burnt along with him. Ibn al-Athir 's account of one of his deaths is parallel to the crucifixion of Jesusstating, matchmaking in saint-georges he died, God sent stormy winds and thunder and lightning and dark clouds, so that darkness fell between heaven and earth, and people were in matchmaking in saint-georges wonderment.
A titular church built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine the Great reigned — was consecrated matchmaking in saint-georges "a man of the highest distinction", according to the church history of Eusebius ; the name of the matchmaking in saint-georges "patron" was not disclosed, but later he was asserted [ by whom? The veneration of George spread from Syria Palaestina through Lebanon to the rest of the Byzantine Empire — though the martyr is not mentioned in the Syriac Breviarium  — and the region east of the Black Sea.
By the 5th century, the veneration of George matchmaking in saint-georges reached the Christian Western Roman Empireas well: inGeorge was canonized as a saint by Pope Gelasius Iamong those "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to [God]. The early cult of the saint was localized in Diospolis Lyddain Palestine. The first description of Lydda as a pilgrimage site where George's relics were venerated is De Situ Terrae Sanctae by the archdeacon Theodosius, written between and By the end of the 6th century, the center of his veneration appears to have shifted to Cappadocia.
The Life of Saint Theodore of Sykeonwritten in the 7th century, mentions the veneration of the relics of the saint in Cappadocia. By the time of the early Muslim conquests of the mostly Christian and Zoroastrian Middle East, a basilica in Lydda dedicated to George existed. The Georgslied is an adaptation of his legend in Old High Germancomposed in the late 9th century. The earliest dedication to the saint in England is a church at Fordington, Dorsetthat is mentioned in the will of Alfred the Great.
Belief in an apparition of George heartened the Franks at the Battle of Antioch in and a similar appearance occurred the following year at Jerusalem. In his rise as a national saint, George was aided by the very fact that the saint had no legendary connection with England, and no specifically localised shrine, as that of Thomas Becket at Canterbury: "Consequently, numerous shrines were established during the late fifteenth century," Muriel C.
McClendon has written,  "and his did not become closely identified with a particular occupation or with the cure of a specific malady. In the wake of the Crusades, George became a model of chivalry in works of literature, including medieval romances.
Its chapters in some editions include the story of George, among many others. After the invention of the printing press, the book became a best seller. The establishment of George as a popular saint and protective giant  in the West, that had captured the medieval imagination, was codified by the official elevation of his feast to a festum duplex  at a church council inon the date that had become associated with his matchmaking in saint-georges, 23 April.
Matchmaking in saint-georges was wide latitude from community to community in celebration of matchmaking in saint-georges day across late medieval and early modern England,  and no uniform "national" celebration elsewhere, a token of the popular and vernacular nature of George's cultus and its local horizons, supported by a local guild or confraternity under George's protection, or the dedication of a matchmaking in saint-georges church.
When the English Reformation severely curtailed the saints' days in the calendar, Saint George's Day was among the holidays that continued to be observed. During the celebrations the th anniversary of its foundation.
George is renowned throughout the Middle East, as both saint and prophet. His veneration by Christians and Muslims lies in his composite personality combining several biblical, Quranic and other ancient mythical heroes. William Dalrymplewho reviewed the literature intells us that J. Hanauer in his book Folklore of the Holy Land: Muslim, Christian and Jewish matchmaking in saint-georges a shrine in the village of Beit Jalabeside Bethlehemwhich at the time was frequented by Christians who regarded it as the birthplace of George and some Jews who regarded it as the burial place of the Prophet Elias.
According to Hanauer, in his day the monastery was "a sort of madhouse. Deranged persons of all the three faiths are taken thither and chained in the court of the chapel, where they are kept for forty days on bread and water, the Eastern Orthodox priest at the head of the establishment now and then reading the Gospel over them, or administering a whipping as the case demands. Dalrymple matchmaking in saint-georges visited the place in With all the greatest shrines in the Christian world to choose from, it seemed that when the local Arab Christians had a problem — an illness, or something more complicated — they preferred to seek the intercession of George in his grubby little shrine at Beit Jala rather than praying at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem or the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.
Almost as many as the Christian pilgrims. Often, when I come in here, I find Muslims all over the floor, in the aisles, up and down. Smith in his Historic Geography matchmaking in saint-georges the Matchmaking in saint-georges Landp. George with the prophet Elijah, at Lydda confound his legend with one about Christ himself. Their name for Antichrist is Dajjal, and they have a tradition that Jesus will slay Antichrist by the gate of Lydda.
The notion sprang from an ancient bas-relief of George and the Dragon on the Lydda church. But Dajjal may be derived, by matchmaking in saint-georges very common confusion between n and lfrom Dagon, whose name two neighbouring villages bear to this day, while one of the gates of Lydda used to be called the Gate of Dagon.
George is described as a prophetic figure in Islamic sources. The last epithet meaning the "green prophet", is common to Christian, Muslim, and Druze folk piety. Samuel Curtiss who matchmaking in saint-georges an artificial cave dedicated to him matchmaking in saint-georges he is identified with Elijah, reports that childless Muslim women used to visit the shrine to pray for children.
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