In Ezekiel 38Gog is an individual and Magog is his land. The Gog prophecy is meant to be fulfilled at the approach of what is called the " end of days ", but not necessarily the end of the world. Jewish eschatology viewed Gog and Magog as enemies to be defeated by the Messiahwhich would usher in the age of the Messiah. One view within Christianity is more starkly apocalypticmaking Gog and Magog, here indicating nations rather than individuals,  allies of Satan against God at the end of the millenniumas described in the Book of Revelation.
A legend was attached to Gog and Magog by the time of the Roman periodthat the Gates of Alexander were erected by Alexander the Great to repel the tribe.
Romanized Jewish historian Josephus knew them as the nation descended from Magog the Japhetiteas in Genesisand explained them to be the Scythians.
In magog christian dating for free hands of Early Christian writers they became apocalyptic hordes. The legend of Gog and Magog and the gates were also interpolated into the Alexander Romances.
According to one interpretation, "Goth and Magothy" are the kings of the Unclean Nations who Alexander drove through a mountain pass and prevented from crossing his new wall. Gog and Magog are said magog christian dating for free engage in human cannibalism in the romances and derived literature. They have also been depicted on Medieval cosmological maps, or mappae mundisometimes alongside Alexander's wall. The conflation of Gog and Magog with the legend of Alexander and the Iron Gates was disseminated throughout the Near East in the early centuries of the Christian and Islamic era.
The names are mentioned together in Ezekiel chapter 38where Gog is an individual and Magog is his land. In Genesis 10 Magog is described as a son of Japhethgrandson of Noahalthough there is no mention there of a person named Gog. The name Magog itself is of obscure origin. It is often associated with Assyrian mat-Gugu"Land of Gyges", i. The Biblical "Gog and Magog" possibly gave derivation of the name Gogmagoga legendary British giant.
The Book of Ezekiel records a series of visions received by the prophet Ezekiela priest of Solomon's Templewho was among the captives during the Babylonian exile. The exile, he tells his fellow captives, is God 's punishment on Israel for turning away, but God will restore his people to Jerusalem when they return to him.
Persia, Cush and Put will be with you Internal evidence indicates that the Gog oracle was composed substantially later than the chapters around it. Blockbut their remoteness and reputation for violence and mystery possibly "made Gog and his confederates perfect symbols of the archetypal enemy, rising against God and his people". Twentieth-century scholars have used the term to denote the eschaton in a malleable sense, not necessarily meaning final days, or tied to the Apocalypse. The 3rd book of the Sibylline Oraclesfor example, which originated in Egyptian Judaism in the middle of the 2nd century BC,  changes Ezekiel's "Gog from Magog" to "Gog and Magog", links their fate with up to eleven other nations, and places them "in the midst of Aethiopian rivers"; this seems a strange location, but ancient geography did sometimes place Ethiopia next to Persia or even India.
The Book of Jubileesfrom about the same time, makes three references to either Gog or Magog: in the first, Magog is a descendant of Noah, as in Genesis 10; in the second, Gog is a region next to Japheth's borders; and in the third, a portion of Japheth's land is assigned to Magog.
The anti-Roman Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century AD looked to a human leader as the promised messiahbut after its failure Jews began to conceive of the messianic age in supernatural terms: first would come magog christian dating for free forerunner, the Messiah ben Josephwho would defeat Israel's enemies, identified as Gog and Magog, to prepare the way for the Messiah ben David ; [g] then the dead would rise, divine judgement would be handed out, and the righteous would be rewarded.
The magog christian dating for freehomiletic and non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaismtreat Gog and Magog as two names for the same nation who will come against Israel in the final war. Chapters — of the Book of Revelationdating from the end of the 1st century AD,  tells how Satan is to be imprisoned for a thousand years, and how, on his release, he will rally "the nations in the four corners of the Earth, Gog and Magog", to a final battle with Christ and his saints: .
When the thousand years are over, Satan will be released from magog christian dating for free prison and will go out to deceive the nations in the four corners of the Earth—Gog and Magog—and to gather them for battle. In number they are like the sand on the seashore. He agrees to build it for them, but warns that when the time comes Last AgeGod will remove the barrier. The early Muslim traditions magog christian dating for free summarised by Zakariya al-Qazwini d.
Gog and Magog, he says, live near to the sea that encircles the Earth and can be counted only by God; this sea is claimed to be the Caspian seaBlack sea or the Sea of Azov. They are human, but magog christian dating for free half the height of a normal man, with claws instead of nails, and a hairy tail and huge hairy ears which they use as mattress and cover for sleeping. They break for the night saying, "Tomorrow we will finish", but each night God restores it.
Then one day, as they stop digging for the night, one will say, "Tomorrow we will finish, God Willing", and in the morning, it is not restored as with every night.
When they do break through, they will be so numerous that, "Their vanguard is in Syria and their rear in Khorasan ".
Various nations and peoples in history were identified as Ya'juj and Ma'juj. At one point, it was the Turks, who threatened Baghdad and northern Iran; magog christian dating for free later, when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad init was they who were Gog and Magog. Al-Kafi, one of their primary collections of ahadith, states that it has been narrated from Ibn Abbas that when he asked Ali about the "creatures", he responded by magog christian dating for free God has created "1, species on the land, 1, species in the sea, 70 species from the Children of Adam and the people are the Children of Adam except for the Yajooj and Majooj".
This is in contradiction with many reports in Sunni sources, including those in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslimwhich indicate they will indeed be from the Children of Adam, and this is the belief of the overwhelming majority of Islamic scholars.
Various modern scholars of history magog christian dating for free geography regarded the Vikings and their descendants as Gog and Magog, since the unknown group from Scandinavia had made their sudden and considerable entry into the history of Europe. Many historical documents suggest that their conquests of other territories was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionariesand magog christian dating for free by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south.
Hoseincompare the languages, behaviors and sexual activities of the tribes of Magog christian dating for free and Magog with those of Vikings. According to Sahih Muslimthe Prophet said:. Then a people whom God had protected from him dajjal would come to Isa, son of Maryamand he would wipe their faces and would inform them of their ranks in Paradise and it would be under such conditions that God would reveal to Isa alaihis salam these words: I have brought forth from amongst My servants such people against whom none would be able to fight; you take these people safely to Tur, and then Magog christian dating for free would send Gog and Magog and they would swarm down from every slope.
The first of them would pass the lake of Tiberias and drink out of it. And when the last of them would pass, he would say: There was once water there. Some scholars further attempt to relate the last portion of the interpretation of Yajuj and Majuj to the Lake of Tiberias, currently magog christian dating for free as the Sea of Galileethe Earth 's lowest freshwater lake, and the Dead Sea. Historian and exegete Ibn Kathir magog christian dating for free similar theories in his book Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya and mentions "Gog and Magog are two groups of Turks, descended from Yafith Japheththe father of the Turks, one of the sons of Noah".
Some of the present day Muslim scholars have termed Gog and Magog as alien species,   while some other Muslim scholars refute this belief by quoting Islamic texts. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad d. The Pseudo-Methodiuswritten originally in Syriac, is considered the source of the Gog and Magog tale incorporated into Western versions of the Alexander Romance.
The Pseudo-Methodius 7th century  is the first source in the Christian tradition for a new element: magog christian dating for free mountains moving together to narrow the corridor, which was then sealed with a gate against Gog and Magog.
This Gog and Magog legend is not found in earlier versions of the Alexander Romance of Pseudo-Callisthenes, whose oldest manuscript dates to the 3rd century, [l] but an interpolation into recensions around the 8th century.
Gog and Magog appear in somewhat later Old French versions of the romance. Gog and Magog also appear in Thomas de Kent 's Roman de toute chevalerie c. A condensed account occurs in a derivative work, the Middle English King Alisaunder vv. The Gog and Magog are not only human flesh-eaters, but illustrated as men "a notably beaked nose" in examples such as the " Sawley map ", an important example magog christian dating for free mappa mundi. Early Christian writers e.
Eusebius frequently identified Gog and Magog with the Romans and their emperor. As one nomadic people followed another on the Eurasian steppes, so the identification of Gog and Magog shifted. In the 9th and 10th centuries these kingdoms were identified by some with the lands of the Khazarsa Turkic people whose leaders had converted to Judaism and whose empire dominated Central Asia—the 9th-century monk Christian of Stavelot referred to Gazari, said of the Khazars that they were "living in the lands of Gog and Magog" and noted that they were "circumcised and observing all [the laws of] Judaism".
After the Khazars came the Mongolsseen as a mysterious and invincible horde from the east who destroyed Muslim empires and kingdoms in the early 13th century; kings and popes took them for the legendary Prester Johnmarching to save Christians from the Muslim Saracensbut when they entered Poland and Hungary and annihilated Christian armies a terrified Europe concluded that they were "Magogoli", the offspring of Gog and Magog, released from the prison Alexander had constructed for them and heralding Armageddon.
Europeans in Medieval China reported findings from their travels to the Mongol Empire. The Tartar Relationan obscure account of Friar Carpini 's s journey to Mongolia, is unique in alleging that these Caspian Mountains in Mongolia, "where the Jews called Gog and Magog by their fellow countrymen are said to have been shut in by Alexander", were moreover purported by the Tartars to be magnetic, causing all iron equipment and weapons to fly off toward the mountains on approach.
In fact, Gog and Magog were held by the Mongol to be their ancestors, at least by some segment of the population. As traveler and Friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce put it in c. Some time around the 12th century, the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel came to be identified with Gog and Magog;  possibly the first to do so was Petrus Comestor in Historica Scholastica c.
While the confounding Gog and Magog as confined Jews was becoming commonplace, some, like Riccoldo or Vincent de Beauvais remained skeptics, and distinguished the Lost Tribes from Gog and Magog. He also addressed magog christian dating for free minds Westerners or otherwise  being credulous of the notion that Mongols might be Captive Jews, but after weighing the pros and cons, he concluded this was an open question.
The Flemish Franciscan friar William of Rubruckwho was first-hand witness to Alexander's supposed wall in Derbent on the shores of the Caspian Sea in[w] identified the people the walls were meant to fend off only vaguely as "wild tribes" or "desert nomads", [x]  but one researcher made the inference Rubruck must have meant Jews, [y] and that he was speaking in the context of "Gog and Magog".
The author of the Travels of Sir John Mandevillea 14th-century magog christian dating for free, said he had found these Jews in Central Asia where as Gog and Magog they had been imprisoned by Alexander, plotting to escape and join with the Jews of Europe to destroy Christians.
In the Borgia mapa copper-engraved world map probably produced in Southern Germany c. The twelfth-century chronicle Primary Chronicle posited that the people of Kievan Rus' were descendants of the biblical Japheth, son of Noah, and of the tribe of Magog. Some post-Cold War millenarians still identify Gog with Russia, but they now tend to stress its allies among Islamic nations, especially Iran.
In the Islamic apocalyptic tradition, the end of the world would be preceded by the release of Gog and Magog, whose destruction by God in a single night would usher in the Day of Resurrection. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects.
Wikimedia Commons. Pair of individuals, peoples, or lands in the Bible and the Quran. For the ancient oak trees of the same name, see Oaks of Albion. Magog christian dating for free the hills, see Gog Magog Hills. For other uses, see Gog disambiguation and Magog magog christian dating for free. Bruges, Belgium, magog christian dating for free century.
Maitreya Three Ages. Olivet Discourse Sheep and Goats. Four Horsemen Antichrist. Historicism Futurism. Second Coming. Kalki Kali Yuga Shiva. Li Hong Divine Incantations Scripture. Frashokereti Saoshyant. See also: Gates of Alexander. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gog and Magog.
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